Written by Edwin Sparks, Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Ecologist/Photo of APHIS drone by Edwin Sparks
Here at Malheur Refuge we engage in a lot of partnership opportunities. I have heard it called “The Malheur Model” more than once. I want to take the time to highlight one of these ongoing partnerships that we have been engaged in for a few years that is probably not well known at this time.
Two years ago I got a phone call from a gentleman that works for USDA/APHIS down in Phoenix, AZ. He is working with a consulting firm based out of Michigan looking at using new technologies for grasshopper control projects. For those who haven’t worked with the hopper folks, current practices are as follows: A field crew of two people go out and walk or ride ATVs across the landscape looking for grasshoppers and Mormon crickets. If they find either of these they will continue to monitor the sites and see if treatment is needed in certain areas. If treatment is deemed necessary, they will typically use a fixed wing aircraft to spray a chemical in the area that stunts grasshopper growth keeping them from being able to reach the last metamorphic growth stage. This, in turn, keeps them from laying eggs. The chemical that has been used lately is called Dimilin. It is safe around birds, mammals, fish, etc. This chemical specifically stops chitin production, a process crucial to invertebrate development.
The problem is that while this chemical is safe around most animals, there are more insects out there that produce chitin that are more than likely being affected by these treatments. So enters APHIS into the picture. They wanted to know if the Refuge would partner with them to try a pilot study to attempt to see if they couldn’t produce an early detection, rapid response protocol. They reached out primarily because we have clearwing grasshoppers on the Refuge and we don’t graze any fields during the growing season. They are wanting to use drones to accomplish both the task of detection and the response. They have so far tried two different rigs, one with an infrared camera looking for different color bands to determine plant health associate with hopper predation. The second used “light detection and ranging” (LiDAR) to measure the amount of light bounced back from the landscape to determine percentage of available leaf. The hope is that once a suitable method of detection is found, the same drone could then be outfitted with a bait box system that could then be deployed at the hatch site.
I don’t need to go into too much depth explaining why this would be a great technology once they get the kinks ironed out. APHIS works mostly with private landowners who look to control grasshoppers in order to keep losses down. That program is not likely going to go away anytime soon. The dream is that this project will keep thousands of acres treated (if not hundreds of thousands) down to hundreds. Given that our pollinators worldwide are facing dire times, every little thing we can do to help keep the amount of treatment down is a huge success.
Written by Peter Pearsall/Photo by Peter Pearsall
The Western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) is a ground-dwelling owl that inhabits areas of short vegetation and bare ground, including deserts, grasslands and shrub-steppe across the West. In Oregon, they are usually associated with sagebrush-steppe, grasslands, pastures, roadsides, and other areas characterized by sparse vegetation and level terrain. East of Oregon’s Cascade Range, burrowing owls are known to breed in all or nearly all of Oregon’s counties, being most common in Wasco, Morrow, Umatilla, Malheur, Harney, and Lake counties.
Its common name refers to the fact that this owl nests and roosts in underground cavities. While capable of small amounts of earth-moving with their taloned feet, burrowing owls usually seek out the previously dug cavities of burrowing mammals (such as ground squirrels, kit foxes or badgers) in which to take residence and raise young.
Burrowing owls spend much of their time on or near the ground, where their spotted buff-brown plumage keeps them relatively inconspicuous as they stand outside their burrows or perch in low vegetation. Always alert to potential danger, the rounded heads of these owls swivel about fluidly, their bright yellow, forward-facing eyes constantly surveying their surroundings.
These small, long-legged owls—seven to ten inches from head to tail—prey on a wide variety of small animals including rodents, reptiles, amphibians and insects, which they capture with their feet and usually ingest whole. They sometimes employ a hovering flight to scan the ground below for prey; they also sally to the ground from perches to chase and capture prey on foot.
Unlike many owl species, burrowing owls may be active both day and night. In the height of summer, they tend to forage more at night, when temperatures are cooler. Similarly, their active period shifts to a more diurnal schedule as daytime temperatures drop in fall and winter.
Burrowing owls do not “hoot” in the traditional owl sense, but males give a two-note coo-coo song when courting a mate. Both sexes give a barking alarm call when intruders approach a nest burrow. When young burrowing owls are threatened, they retreat underground and make a harsh rasping or hissing sound. From the confines of the burrow, this sound very closely resembles the rattle of a disturbed rattlesnake and probably serves to deter predation.
During the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel, which began in northeastern California and went through Nevada to southern Utah from 1867 to 1872, the expedition’s then-teenaged ornithologist, Robert Ridgway, remarked that “Although the ‘Ground Owl’ was found at widely-separated places along our entire route, it was abundant at very few locations…Eastward of the Sierra Nevada we found it only at wide intervals.” That description is perhaps even truer today, as burrowing owl populations across western North America are seeing declines, primarily due to habitat loss from land conversions for agricultural and urban development, as well as habitat degradation and loss due to reductions of native burrowing mammal populations.
Written by Alexa Martinez, Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife Biologist/Photo of Windmill Pond by Doug Peterson
Malheur National Wildlife Refuge has several methodologies for trying to find the best ways to collect data to help provide a biological assessment for management decisions. Whether it’s walking transects through a field, driving an airboat on Malheur Lake surveying for shorebirds, flying in a small aircraft to count waterfowl, or conducting point-count surveys from a fixed position, all these methods help improve the quality of our surveys that provide important information, not just to Malheur NWR, but also to any biological program. As scientists, we are always looking for the latest and best practices to improve efficiency and accuracy, as well as finding affordable ways to collect data.
Today, the use of drones for biological assessments is becoming a very popular way to collect data. Through the Department of the Interior (DOI), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service offers classes to become a certified drone pilot for DOI. This certification requires potential pilots to take certain online aviation safety courses as well as a knowledge test. Once tests are completed, each individual needs to attend a week-long course through DOI to learn the ins and outs of flying a drone and to understand the laws and regulations one needs to be aware of before flying. Only after that are individuals certified as unmanned aircraft system (UAS) pilots for DOI.
At Malheur NWR, currently we use drones to take aerial photos for our carp biomass study, which will help provide valuable information about how carp affect aquatic vegetation. We are now trying to move forward using drone technology for bird monitoring surveys. One potential application is to use drones to monitor colonial nesting birds on Malheur Lake. In the past, these birds were monitored via small-plane flights once every 3 years. These flights are very spendy; the lengthy intervals between surveys limits the data we’re able to collect. This is why we would like to use drones to see if we can monitor densities of colonial nesters on the lake. Some of our neighbor National Wildlife Refuges in Eastern Idaho are using drone technology to monitor their American White Pelican colonies and are finding success. Granted, there are downsides to using drones. They have limited battery life and memory space, but despite these drawbacks, in the end drones are an amazing tool. Drones are not as invasive to wildlife and are more accessible when needed compared to a small aircraft or airboat, are cheaper and have multiple applications that assist biologist staff in fulfilling the Refuge’s mission.
Written by FOMR President Gary Ivey
Grace is not just any trumpeter swan, she has quite the story to share! We are proud to announce that FOMR Vice Chair, Alice Elshoff, has just had a part to play in the beginning of Grace’s story and even now, as she has just penned How Grace Got Her Name. This children’s story book has been stunningly illustrated by Jennifer Curtis and published locally through Moonglade Press in Bend, OR. Alice shares with readers the trouble that Grace finds herself along the Deschutes River in downtown Bend and the trials she endures alongside a community of people that set themselves to task in helping her survive and thrive.
Even more impressive is that Grace is but one swan of a much larger story for trumpeter swans. Young produced by Grace and her new mate will be released into the wild at Summer Lake Wildlife Area to help build a self-sustaining trumpeter flock as her two past broods were. Grace is owned by The Trumpeter Swan Society and hosted by Sunriver Nature Center, in a partnership aimed at building the wild population of trumpeter swans in SE and South-Central Oregon. The Trumpeter Swan Society and its other partners, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR), have been working to expand breeding trumpeter swan numbers and distribution in south-central and southeast Oregon since the 1990s with what’s called the Oregon Trumpeter Swan Restoration Project.
In the late 1930s through the 1950s trumpeter swans were released at MNWR to restore this once present Oregon species. The first nesting occurred in 1958 and the MNWR trumpeter swan flock slowly grew until its numbers peaked at 19 breeding pairs and a total of 77 individuals in 1986. Flood conditions in the mid-1980s reduced their productivity and allowed high numbers of common carp to invade traditional MNWR wintering sites and reduce aquatic food supplies, resulting in degraded wetland conditions and a declining trend in swan numbers. Shortage of winter food caused by degraded wetland conditions and low recruitment were the primary factors limiting the population and these problems were compounded by the sedentary behavior of the flock. The MNWR flock has persisted to the present, though the flock is currently very small (4 adults) and is in danger of local extinction. MNWR still provides excellent sites for breeding trumpeter swans; however, the wintering area in the south Blitzen Valley that the flock is imprinted on is marginal and likely limits the carrying capacity of the refuge for the existing flock. In recent years, brood survival has been minimal, likely due to reduced water availability in the Blitzen Valley.
Although the project originally began in 1991 and some progress was made on establishing a new flock focused on Summer Lake Wildlife Area, the project was halted in 1998 due to political concerns. Unfortunately, most of the new breeding pairs established from the 1990s releases were gone by the 2009, when restoration efforts were restored. Since 2009, 9 new pairs have nested in this region, which fledged a total of 17 wild hatched cygnets. We are hopeful that Grace’s young will survive to breed in the wild and contribute towards a self-sustaining trumpeter swan flock in Oregon.
Friends of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge supports the Oregon Trumpeter Swan Restoration Project by contributing to The Trumpeter Swan Society as a member.
Written by Peter Pearsall/Photo by Peter Pearsall
Perhaps you’ve seen a few of these butterflies recently, flitting about in your garden. Or perhaps you’ve seen hundreds, coursing along coastlines or crossing highways in steady streams, with many sadly meeting their ends splattered on car windshields and grills.
Measuring two inches from wingtip to wingtip, with black and white markings against an orange backdrop, these scale-winged insects are a familiar sight to people around the world. The painted lady (Vanessa cardui) is one of the most widespread butterfly species on the planet, found on every continent except South America and Antarctica.
In years of abundant winter rainfall, painted lady numbers can skyrocket, as early-blooming wildflowers provide nectar for butterflies and food sources for their larvae.
Like the famous monarch butterfly, painted ladies are migratory, following favorable conditions with the seasons. In the American West, these butterflies generally move in a north-northwest direction, leaving the Southwest and Mexico at winter’s end and traveling toward the Pacific Northwest with the onset of spring.
Painted ladies aren’t picky in their choice of plants to nectar on. Adults will use almost any plant in flower but they show preference for those in the Asteraceae family, including thistles. These plants are the butterfly’s hosts—their larvae eat leaves of asters and spin silken webs to protect themselves from predators.
Interestingly, painted ladies are known to breed and lay eggs in all seasons. A single year’s migration can involve several successive generations of painted ladies, each born and raised along the migration route.
It’s estimated that millions of these butterflies are migrating across North America this spring. Enjoy this natural spectacle while it lasts!