Avian Botulism Response in Covid Times

Written by Marie Travers & January Bill of Bird AllyX

Bird Ally X is a group of experienced wildlife caregivers dedicated to rescue, rehabilitation, education and advocacy. Since 2018, the nonprofit organization has partnered with the Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge along with Focus Wildlife to provide emergency rehabilitation during botulism outbreaks. The first year we cared for 494 birds; last year it was 233. But just like so much of life in 2020, this year’s outbreak was unprecedented in scope and scale, epic in both volume and complexity. 

Long-time refuge staff say it was the worst botulism event at KBNWR in decades, with an estimated 40,000-plus birds perishing due to heat, drought and lack of water on the refuge.

On July 15th, 2020 Focus Wildlife and Bird Ally X set up the field hospital. The following day, the first two avian botulism infected birds were delivered to the hospital, a full month earlier than in previous years. Area wildfires restricted bird collection, allowing the disease to spread unchecked at the beginning of the response. Once search and collection was in full force in early August, the number of birds coming in skyrocketed, averaging 75 birds a day. One day we received 179 birds. Over the next 75 days, a total of 3,179 waterbirds were admitted and treated, a 544% increase in patients from 2019. Of the birds surviving the first 24 hours, 78% were released. Because of the continuous influx of unprecedented numbers of impacted birds, the hospital was in constant state of expansion and modification.

COVID made the response much more complicated. Our plan was to keep our bubble as small as possible by hiring interns rather than relying wholly on volunteers. As a staff of two, we knew it would be a long haul to October and we had to stay healthy. With one intern at the outset, we hired another after a few weeks and several more in the following weeks. We also had a few incredibly dedicated volunteers who have worked every botulism response with us—they drove from the Bay Area and paid for their own food and lodging to join the effort. A few local volunteers helped at the hospital, cleaning, doing laundry and data entry. The small but mighty team consisted of two to nine people working each day. The work hours were incredible, totaling 4,698 hours in all. By comparison, during the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill in the San Francisco Bay, 400 volunteers cared for 1,100 birds.

Soon we had hundreds of ducks and shorebirds at the MASH hospital to care for, and released birds on a daily basis to make room for the new ones arriving each afternoon. Our days ran together and were the same, resembling “Groundhog Day:” feed birds, clean, swim birds, move birds, dry birds, intake birds, release evaluations. Each new day also threw us some kind of crazy curveball.

Just like so many hospitals treating coronavirus patients, our MASH hospital reached maximum capacity. With so many birds coming in, we spent nights fundraising to buy additional enclosures and pay for the interns now desperately needed. These funds were essential to expanding the capacity of care and treatment for the botulism response. Donations and grant funds were used to purchase and build additional enclosures (including conditioning pools and predator-proof permanent enclosures) as well as rehabilitation treatment equipment and supplies. Donations were also critical in helping pay stipends for interns, whose help was vital at this time.

Miraculously, every single time we asked for help, we got it. Organizations and individuals stepped up in ways we could never have imagined. People offered up pools and affordable intern housing options. Volunteers sponsored intern stipends and paid for vital equipment. And several nonprofits—including Friends of Malheur NWR, Mt. Diablo Audubon and so many other awesome organizations—made significant donations that saved birds and our sanity. It was truly inspiring.

Going above and beyond

Friends of Malheur Refuge was one organization critical in supporting our ability to expand our treatment and care capacity.  As the number of birds brought to the hospital began to reach critical capacity, Friends of Malheur Refuge offered help by providing a grant of $9,260 to hire more interns and help with equipment and supplies.  A special thank you to all of the Friends of Malheur Refuge whose donations were critical to this life saving work. We are also grateful to other organizations and individuals who made our work possible including:

Klamath Basin Audubon Society
East Cascades Audubon Society
Mount Diablo Audubon Society
Willapa Hills Audubon Soviety
CAL ORE Wetlands and Waterfowl Council
Cal Waterfowl members
Robert G. Kirby Fund of Oregon Community Foundation
Black Brant Group Inc.
Bird Ally X members

The 2020 Avian Botulism Rehabilitation Team:
Laundry Team:  Fran McDermott, Molly Russell, Polly Ganong-Strahan
Interns:  Kaile Edenhofer, Jenna Farmer, Christine Impara, Molly Joyce, Erin Linton, Gage Mazet, Lindsey Sampson
Volunteer bird bander: Elizabeth Huggins
Volunteer responders: Marguerita Scannell, Nancy & Jerry Mix, Lloyd & Mattie Bill, Peg Devero, Geanie Flanigan, Rusty Rosenberg
Volunteer wildlife rehabilitator: Elissa Blair

2020 Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge Complex Botulism Rehabilitation Response Affiliated Award

The two wildlife rehabilitators managing the response, Marie Travers and January Bill, received the California Council for Wildlife Rehabilitators Award of Excellence for going above and beyond in the field of wildlife rehabilitation for their 2020 Avian Botulism response management.

We hope you enjoy this photo gallery of the Avian Botulism Response at Klamath Basin NWR Complex in 2020.

Frozen pond in the distance with a tree and grasses all covered in frost.

Malheur & Me: A Winter Wonderland

Written by Patricia Feltmann/Photos by Patricia Feltmann

My husband and I were introduced to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in the late 1980’s by my parents, Tom and Dixie Nelson, who had been visiting for years. We finally returned in 2017 and have been making regular forays to the area ever since.  Our trips are usually in spring and summer, to catch as much of migration and nesting seasons as possible. My husband’s personal favorites are the Yellow-Headed Blackbirds, which remind him of his childhood in the mid-west.

This year, however, we decided to make a trip to the refuge in December.  I am not sure Headquarters could look any more beautiful than it was that morning!  The area was covered in freezing fog.  We could hear coyotes howling in the foggy distance and we had the place completely to ourselves. I was able to take a picture of  a California Quail fluffed up against the cold on a frosty bush that has become one of my favorite photographs. As we drove down the Center Patrol Road, the beauty of the refuge itself was the main attraction, with the birds and animals accentuating that beauty. Stepping out of the car to capture that beauty, I was startled by a Ring-Necked Pheasant bursting out of the long grass at my feet, one of many we saw on and around the Refuge on that trip. 

After visiting the refuge, we traveled down to the South Steens Herd Management Area to photograph wild horses. On our way, we spotted a large herd of Mule Deer and then a herd of Bighorn Sheep fairly close to the road above Frenchglen. Once in the South Steens HMA, we were blessed to find many bands we had not seen on previous trips. 

We hope to continue to return to the refuge year after year and in all seasons.  There are so many places  we still have yet to explore on the Refuge and in the surrounding areas.

Patricia Feltmann’s photographs are used here with her permission and are not to be printed or reproduced. To reach Patricia and see more of her photography please visit her website or send an email.
Website: p-feltmann-photography.com
E-mail: patricia.feltmann@gmail.com

If you would like to share your photographs or reflection on your connection to Malheur NWR, please contact Janelle via email.

Cartoon Goose looks through binoculars across Blitzen Valley Meadow

Christmas is for the Birds & Families

Written by Teresa Wicks /Photos by Teresa Wicks and Participants

Saturday, December 19, 2020 33 participants from nine local families turned out for Harney County’s second annual Christmas Bird Count for Kids (CBC4Kids). It was a cold but sunny day with perfect bluebird skies, though no bluebirds made a showing for the count. Our teams counted birds along designated routes in Burns and Hines, stopping at predetermined CBC4Kids checkpoints where they were encouraged to take and share their group photos.

During the 1.5 hour count our intrepid families counted 26 species, including 722 California Quail. That’s two more species and 362 more quail than last year! While the format of the count was very different from last year to accommodate for COVID safety, families were still able to enjoy the morning and a lunch certificate for Figaro’s pizza. This year’s CBC4Kids awards are as follows:

Best Team Name: Hal Fred’s hitch caught the birds

Best Family Photo: Quiet Quail

Most Species Counted: Jabberjays

Most Quail Counted: Bird Nerds

Thank you to everyone that agreed to host a CBC4Kids checkpoint. This includes numerous local backyard birders that kept their feeders filled the day of the count, the schools and ESD, the cities of Burns and Hines, and the following businesses: Geno’s Youth Center and Kid’s Club, Steens Mountain Brewing Co., Harney County Veterinary Clinic, Hines Mill House, and The Aspens Living Center.

Lastly, a big thank you to our community partners: Portland Audubon’s Eastern Oregon Program, Friends of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Harney County Library, and Burns District Bureau of Land Management; and to our sponsors Leupold and Stevens for donating binoculars and a scope to support birding and nature exploration by Harney County youth and families, and Bird Collective for a generous discount on bird patches for this and other programs.

To learn more about and to support educational programming CLICK HERE.

Carp Radio Telemetry Study

Written by James Pearson /Photo by James Pearson

In the last article I wrote for Malheur Musings, I mentioned that we as a refuge are only at the beginning of a long term journey to restore the currently degraded state of Malheur Lake. On the ground research and modeling efforts have helped us understand that the current turbid state of Malheur Lake is being maintained by strong positive reinforcing feedback loops (i.e. bioturbation via Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and wind sediment resuspension), which are pulling the lake towards the turbid state. In order to shift Malheur Lake back to the historically clear state, a transformative effort is necessary, incorporating a combination of Common carp (hereafter “carp”) and wind-wave suppression, as well as restoration of emergent/submergent vegetation. To better understand the major mechanisms driving and maintaining the current turbid state, the MNWR has initiated three major collaborative pilot restoration projects: 1) emergent vegetation expansion and transplantation, 2) mesocosm water quality enhancement, and 3) carp radio telemetry, over the next two field seasons (2021-2022). It is our hope that the outputs from these collaborative research projects will help us identify the combinations of restoration actions necessary to not only flip Malheur Lake, but also maintain the clear state in perpetuity.

While all three of these projects will be essential to the eventual restoration of Malheur Lake, carp suppression is seen as the most difficult task ahead. With that being said, I wanted to give background on the Carp Radio Telemetry Project, as well as describe some of the actions that MNWR researchers will undertake over the next two field seasons.

Project Background

As I mentioned in the last article, carp populations are very difficult to control due to compensatory density dependence, in which demographic rates (i.e. growth, mortality, and recruitment) shift in response to variations in the population’s overall density. In an effort to better understand the carp population in Malheur Lake, a carp population model (CarpMOD) was constructed to investigate removal actions. Ultimately, these results demonstrated that carp suppression should: 1) target multiple life stages, 2) take advantage of the natural mortality imposed upon the population by the surrounding environment (i.e. lake fluctuations), and 3) identify vulnerabilities within the carp population that can be exploited to increase removal efficiencies and mortality rates already imposed by the environment.

The Carp Radio Telemetry Project aims to identify vulnerabilities within the carp population that may be exploited via large scale removal actions. One such vulnerability that the Carp Radio Telemetry Project will investigate is the movement of carp from the lacustrine (Malheur Lake) environment into the riverine (Blitzen and Silvies Rivers) environments. For instance, anecdotal evidence suggests that carp in Malheur Lake move into the surrounding rivers to spawn in spring and for refugia habitat during low water years in late summer.

The spawning movement of carp in spring is likely motivated by their need for submerge macrophytes for successful spawning. Carp living in lakes at temperate latitudes similar to Malheur Lake begin to enter the river/lake floodplain habitat to spawn in spring as water temperatures rise above ≈17°C. Carp have adhesive eggs which must be laid onto submerged aquatic vegetation and/or inundated terrestrial vegetation. The inundated vegetation also provides protection for the eggs from wind-driven waves, which can dislodge the adhesive eggs sending the eggs to the substrate where they are smothered with sediment and are no longer viable due to low oxygen concentrations or physical harm.

In Malheur Lake, it is hypothesized that the carp enter the Blitzen and Silvies Rivers in spring to utilize the abundant submerged and emergent vegetation that is inundated due to the high flows. This hypothesis has been further validated by observational data collected during carp spawning surveys, in which MNWR Biologist float the lower portion of the Blitzen River and observed >250 spawning carp in early spring. However, in surveys conducted later in spring, zero carp were observed spawning, thus, anecdotally demonstrating a seasonal (spawning) migration that is temporary and likely driven by physiological and environmental variables.

Less is known about the carp movement in late summer, which is hypothesized to be driven by a need for refugia habitat as conditions become degraded in the lake due to low water levels and high water temperatures. However, previous studies have demonstrated that carp are sensitive to temperature changes which can affect their movement and feeding patterns, and thus forced to move to refugia habitat. One such refugia habitat is the Blitzen and Silvies Rivers, which while having lower flows, would potentially provide cooler water with increased food availability.

Project Implementation

The Carp Radio Telemetry Project is a collaborative effort between the MNWR and the United States Geological Survey (USGS: Western Fisheries Research Center – Cook, WA). Over the next two years, our collaborative team will surgically implant and track 150 carp, setup and maintain ten stationary receivers (Figure 1) that will collect continuous data in a variety of environments (Malheur Lake – 5; Blitzen River – 3; Silvies River – 2), and conduct mobile tracking bi-weekly via airboats and canoes. Collectively, the data collected over the next two years will enable researchers to infer population-level behavior (i.e. habitat utilization and aggregations) both spatially and temporally. Ultimately, this project will provide novel insight into the behavior of carp in Malheur Lake, which then will be utilized by researchers and managers to exploit identified vulnerabilities within the carp population to increase removal efficiencies.

Figure 1. The green points roughly demonstrate the areas in which we will place stationary receivers that will collect continuous radio telemetry data.

Plight of the Monarch

Written by Peter Pearsall/Photo by Peter Pearsall

We Americans consider very few insect species “iconic”—that is, cherished, beloved, recognized by millions across the country. We much prefer to lavish attention on furrier, floofier, more familiar creatures. But if any insect were to merit such status, that insect would surely be the monarch butterfly.

Measuring up to four inches from wing to wing, ostentatiously flitting about on warm sunny days, the monarch (Danaus plexippus plexippus) begs to be noticed. Its striking coloration—an aposematic palette of orange, black and white—signals to potential predators that it is toxic, owing to chemical compounds acquired from its only host plant, milkweed.

Monarch butterflies depend on milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) for survival—their larvae develop by eating the leaves and flowers of these plants and nothing else. Most monarch populations are migratory; in North America, the species is divided into two major groups: Eastern monarchs, which migrate from wintering grounds in Mexico to breed in states east of the Rocky Mountains; and Western monarchs, which breed west of the Rockies and winter in coastal California.

But across the country, monarchs are struggling. While both North American populations have been declining for decades, the Western monarch is now on the verge of disappearing altogether. Only 2,000 monarchs were counted on their California wintering grounds in November 2020—just last year, 30,000 were tallied there. Decades ago, there were millions.

Western monarchs utilize milkweeds in desert habitats, including those at Malheur Refuge. In 2014 the Refuge was identified as a priority Western monarch breeding area by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Pacific Regional Office. Monarchs in the Harney Basin use showy milkweed (A. speciosa), a widespread and often abundant species, nectaring on its flowers and laying eggs on the plant itself. Surveys during that period turned up small numbers of monarchs using milkweed on the Refuge, but today there are likely even fewer to be found.

It is thought that habitat loss and heavy pesticide use are behind the widespread decline of monarchs, along with populations of many other native pollinators. Also implicated are the deleterious effects of climate change. Despite these dire circumstances, earlier this month the monarch butterfly was denied federal protection under the Endangered Species Act, a decision that came six years after USFWS was petitioned to list it. In the decision, USFWS acknowledged that the species warrants protection—but with conservation funding stretched thin, other, higher-priority species would take precedence.

Less than 1% of the entire Western population remains. If this iconic species can disappear from the American West in a matter of decades, what hope is there for the many other invertebrate species around that world that receive little to no conservation concern?