Written by Alexa Martinez, Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife Biologist/Photo of pallid bat by Peter Pearsall
As temperatures begin to rise at Malheur NWR, a diversity of critters come out to explore. Everything from snakes basking on the roads, songbirds nesting in trees and shrubs, or everyone’s favorite: pesky mosquitoes coming out to buzz in your ear. One critter of interest utilizes the resources that the Refuge provides for shelter, food, water and space…BATS!
Visitors may focus on birds when they come to Malheur NWR, but when they walk around and find small piles of pellets near door entrances, they always think we have some sort of mice problem. When they are told that it’s just guano, or bat poop (also known as Malheur’s golden fertilizer!), some are either fascinated that we have bats or are confused because they were not expecting to hear that.
At the Refuge, we take part in the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) to monitor bat activity. NABat was created to assess continental-wide changes in distribution and abundance of bat species. This is an international, multi-agency program that uses four survey methods to gather data: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic survey along roads, and stationary acoustic survey points.
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Region 1 (R1) Inventory and Monitoring Program (I&M) supports and coordinates NABat by assisting filed staff with conducting acoustic point sampling on National Wildlife Refuges. Malheur NWR has two 10X10 km grid sites where we set 4 bat detectors. These detectors record the echolocation from the bats in the area. We aim to set the detectors in areas where bats are known for; near standing water, trees, building rim rocks, etc. With this in mind, we have chosen Refuge Headquarters Complex and Buena Vista Substation. Both locations have been very promising.
Looking at the results from, 2018 there were at least 12 species of bats detected at Malheur NWR! Out of 20 National Wildlife Refuges in R1, Malheur NWR reported the second highest recording of species richness, with Sheldon NWR having the greatest with 14 species of bats. Richness refers to both the diversity and abundance of the species.
In 2019, we are continuing these surveys in addition to working with the Wildlife Health & Population Lab for Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife to collect guano and swab samples. Samples are collected where we know there are potential maternal roosting on the Refuge and will be tested for White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). WNS is a disease that affects hibernating bats and is caused by a fungus that appears as a white fuzz on bats’ faces. This disease causes changes in bat behavior, making them more active than usual and burning up valuable fat reserves needed to survive the winter. This deadly disease has killed millions of bats in North America. It is important to stay vigilant, but 2018 results report that Malheur NWR is WNS free!
You can help prevent spread of WNS to unaffected areas! It is important that you DO NOT transport or use any exposed clothing or gear outside of a WNS-affected state or region for use in a WNS-unaffected state or region. To learn more about NABat and WNS, you can visit https://www.nabatmonitoring.org/ or http://www.batcon.org/.
Written by Teresa Wicks, Portland Audubon Society Eastern Oregon Field Coordinator/Photo by Teresa Wicks
One of my favorite things about Riparian Surveys on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge are the Eastern Kingbirds. Showing up somewhere around late May/early June, their striking black-and-white plumage and noteworthy chattering provide entertainment for the duration of their time in Harney County. This year, the EAKI (the 4-letter code for Eastern Kingbirds) seemed to show a little later than last year, likely due to the abnormally wet and stormy May we had in Harney County.
Aside from my inherent affection for EAKI, I have been thinking about them lately because I managed to capture a picture of an EAKI with color bands (pink above, red below) on its left leg. It likely also has a metal band on its right leg, but I couldn’t see it. One of the great things about the internet is that birders can look up research projects that involve color bands, collars (in geese and swans), and patagial tags (tags on wings, like in CA condor projects). Because Eastern Kingbirds tend to return to the area that they were born in, nested in, etc from year-to-year, it makes the study associated with this individual easy to find.
Ultimately, this is what this one EAKI taught me: From 2002-2010, graduate students and researchers from Portland State University conducted in-depth research on EAKI at Malheur NWR. Throughout their range, EAKI have high site fidelity, with males often nesting in the same tree from year-to-year. However, Malheur EAKI have a higher likelihood of resighting (in this case meaning returning to their nesting/natal territory) than in other areas where they nest. This is likely because the habitat for EAKI in Harney County is largely limited to Malheur NWR. Meaning there aren’t many other places for them to go when they return year-to-year. This study also verified that while EAKI are socially monogamous, they are (like many songbirds) actually polygynous, with males and females engaging in “extra-pair matings” throughout the year.
Possibly one of the more interesting things about this particular EAKI, and this particular study, is that this adult EAKI was likely color banded from 2002-2010. According to Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, the oldest EAKI on record was “at least 10 years, 1 month old when she was recaptured and released” in New York. If the EAKI on Malheur had been banded as a fledgling, 9-10 years ago, that would make this bird approximately the same age as the oldest EAKI on record. If it was banded before that, it could possibly be the older than the oldest known EAKI! What an exciting thought!
The visible color bands have been reported to the Breeding Bird Laboratory, in the hopes that the pattern and location will be enough for an ID. If it is, this data will go into the BBL database, and provide information about lifespan and site fidelity for researchers across the country. This is why it is so important to report birds that you see with color leg bands, neck collars, or patagial tags. This resighting information is an important part of these “mark-recapture” efforts. If you see a banded bird, take a photo and report it!
Written by FOMR volunteer Eileen Loerch/Photos by FOMR volunteers Patty MacInnis and Steve Loerch
When Janelle asked me to help with a first and third grade field trips to the Refuge, I happily accepted the offer. In the past, I worked with children to help them discover the wonders of birds and I missed the experience.
Approximately 135 first- and third-grade children from Slater Elementary in Burns participated in a field trip over two days.
Our first day was spent with the 1st graders. In addition to myself, Carey Goss, Alexa Martinez (Biologist) and Brett Dean (Refuge Law Enforcement) lead groups of students at four separate stations. I chose to help the children understand the differences between mammals and birds, and we congregated under the pavilion near the gift shop. With a ready supply of Belding’s ground squirrels and a variety of birds, the children and I had an opportunity to observe birds and mammals going about their lives.
Additionally, we shared hands-on activities that allowed us to touch bobcat pelts, look at replicas of eggs, observe several types of recovered bird nests, and hold and compare feathers of different types and from different types. To help work off excess energy we waved the feathers in the air and felt how they moved the air and practiced soaring like a vulture.
A highlight of the visit for the children was observing the resident adult and juvenile great horned owls through spotting scopes. The owls cooperated by roosting in trees near the gift shop, allowing a view through the scope that filled the field of view. I loved the children’s delight at seeing the owls so close. A frequent comment was “He’s right in there!”
When the third graders came a week later, it was myself with Carey Goss, and Janelle. I met my student groups over three rotations and took them on a bird walk around the David Marshall Trail. The students were fascinated with the bird blind, and quite adept at finding and identifying birds using field guides. All things wild caught their eye, including ants and other insects. They had fun looking at spider webs blowing through the silver maples along the trail.
Watching the children reminded me to be aware of all the life that surrounds us at Malheur. Magic lives at Malheur. You only need see through the eyes of a child to notice it.
Field Days Addendum
Written by FOMR Director Janelle Wicks
It was such a joy to reach into my old bag of tricks and pull out some of my favorite activities for the Slater 3rd Grade students earlier this month. We began our time with a discussion about the role of a National Wildlife Refuge to conserve and manage the landscape to support healthy populations of native and migratory species that depend on it. Logically, this lead to a wonderful conversation about common carp and their impact on Malheur Lake which was originally protected for resident and migratory birds.
From there we engaged in an activity I like to call Feed the Birds. Students pair off and are given a realistic image of a bird and asked to discuss that bird with their partner. Do you know what bird it is? What do you think it might eat? Why might it eat seeds versus small mammals? This discussion goes on for a bit of time before I show off my table of bird skulls where they try to find and stand by the skull that they believe belongs to their bird. This part is always fun – listening to them debate over the merit of one choice or another before settling and raising their bird in the air to let me know they’ve come to a decision. At that point it is up to each team to defend their choice. We talk about beak structure, eye location, size, etc until everyone has had a chance to speak. Helping the students articulate their observations and encouraging them to actively listen to one another is so much fun.
After that the students had the chance to do one more activity with me before we rotate. We discuss the needs that all wildlife have but then focus specifically on birds. When we learn about birds – what do we learn about? What do they eat? Where do they live? What kind of nest do they make? Answers to these questions are found in special books all about birds! Asking themselves these questions about their favorite bird, the students get to choose different colored yarn that represent their answers and braid a “Fingerwoven Field Guide”.
Exclamations of “Mine is a hummingbird!” “Mine is a bald eagle!” “Mine is a flamingo!!!” all start to ring out all around me as we settle down to braid our bracelets. As we prepare to say goodbye and rotate to the next station, I share a little secret with them.
“Today, every one of you is going to go home with a very special bird identification guidebook of your own!” Due to the generosity of author, naturalist, conservationist and Friends of Malheur NWR Board Member Kenn Kaufman, we passed out 68 of his Field Guide to Birds of North America books to 68 very keen young birders!
The Friends of Malheur NWR are so grateful to Kenn for his priceless gift to these local students. Thank you Kenn and thank you to all of you who in supporting our organization make things like this possible.
Written by Peter Pearsall/Photo by Peter Pearsall
On Saturday, August 17, FOMR and Refuge staff will host the annual Carp Fishing Derby at Malheur Headquarters. This event, which began in 2010 and has been held nearly every year since, has traditionally served to kick off a week-long carp fishing season at the Refuge. Today, it’s an opportunity for visitors to come to the Refuge and participate in a good-natured fishing competition, as well as learn more about common carp and the management issues they pose to Refuge staff.
Common carp were introduced to Harney Basin waterways sometime in the early 1900s, likely as a source of food for landowners. They began showing up at the Refuge in the 1920s, and by the 1950s their expanded numbers were having detrimental effects on aquatic habitats within the Refuge. Common carp are bottom feeders, and their constant rooting about for food clouds the water and smothers aquatic vegetation, depriving it of the sunlight necessary for photosynthesis. As aquatic and emergent vegetation disappeared from Malheur’s waterways during the height of the carp invasion, waterfowl and shorebirds—dependent on these habitat types for feeding and nesting—abandoned the Refuge.
Carp management is therefore a top priority at Malheur Refuge. Past management efforts have involved piscicides, explosives, electroshocking, fish barriers, hand removal, and hiring a commercial fishing fleet to catch carp and convert them to fertilizer. Each of these methods has upsides and downsides; all have met with lukewarm results thus far. Read more about the ongoing Carp Biomass Study at Malheur Refuge.
Events like the Carp Fishing Derby at the Refuge put a light-hearted spin on this serious conservation issue. The Carp Derby is designed primarily for kids, but everyone is welcome to participate. There will be games and activities, educational information about the effects of carp on Harney Basin wetlands, plus prizes for the best fishing and some cooking of carp to feed the attendees.
Written by Teresa “Bird” Wicks, Portland Audubon Society Eastern Oregon Field Coordinator/Photo by Teresa Wicks
This spring has been a particularly wet one at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Between spring snowmelt and rainstorms, things are lush and green throughout the Refuge. Particularly in the Blitzen River Valley, where the main channel of the river is rushing with abundant runoff from Steens Mountain. As water levels rise in the Blitzen River and in the east and west canals, more snow has been deposited on Steens. Because of the snow, the Bureau of Land Management is saying that the loop road likely won’t be open until July!
As expected, the water and weather have affected birds on the Refuge, with the first-of-the-year Eastern Kingbird recorded May 27th, during the second round of Woody Riparian Landbird surveys. Woody Riparian Landbird surveys are one of several spring Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) surveys at Malheur. These I&M surveys provide data about management efforts on the Refuge, including management of wet meadows, riparian areas, springs, and lacustrine habitat (lakes and impoundments). Additionally, I&M survey priorities are selected to meet state, local, and regional efforts.
Many of the spring avian I&M surveys are completed via a partnership between Portland Audubon and Malheur NWR. Portland Audubon has been involved at Malheur since its designation as a wildlife reservation in the early 1900s. Over approximately the past decade, Portland Audubon has provided seasonal biological staff, to complete biological surveys and docent work with the Refuge. Finally, last year, Portland Audubon hired me as their full-time year-round Eastern Oregon Field Coordinator. This has allowed Portland Audubon to work more closely with our Eastern Oregon partners, including Malheur NWR and Friends of Malheur NWR.
I started with Portland Audubon in April 2018, making this spring my second field season at Malheur. One of the more interesting things about the difference between last winter/spring and this winter/spring is the amount of water everywhere. While Malheur Lake still hasn’t reached the Narrows (It will! Soon!), many of the canals, ponds, and wetlands are brimming with water, including in places that last season seemed like there should have been water but wasn’t. As a student of nature, this dichotomy (abundant water vs little water) is providing important lessons. Lessons that are potentially clouded by the near-constant rain that May brought to the Harney Basin. But, they are lessons nonetheless. Some of these lessons include remembering that when the water is hip deep, and the clouds are emptying their contents on the field you’re in, you can definitely still make it back to the truck. The wildflowers that this wet winter and spring have called forth have been a lesson in remembering to stop and enjoy the hidden beauty of this place that provides solitude, solace, and endless vistas.
This spring’s data are an important addition to the I&M database. The lessons that we will learn, as more information is added to this database, will help shape management and conservation efforts at Malheur. These lessons are less subtle than wildflowers and more subtle than water levels, and will help create successful strategies for adapting to a changing climate.