The Uncommonly Dark Skies of Harney County

We live in an era when natural darkness is increasingly hard to find, banished as it is by the ubiquity of artificial lighting in cities and other developed areas. This “light pollution” and concomitant loss of darkness has planet-wide ramifications: The ever-growing influence of our lighted spaces changes how animals sleep and reproduce, disrupts their nightly migration patterns, alters their feeding behaviors, and much else—to say nothing of how this lack of natural darkness affects humans’ physical, social, and psychological well-being.

It’s concerns like these that led Jennifer Barlow, who in 2003 was a high-schooler in Virginia, to create what she called National Dark Sky Week. It’s now an internationally recognized event that draws attention to the problems of light pollution and promotes simple and effective means to mitigate it.

In explaining what led her to start the event, Barlow has said, “I want people to be able to see the wonder of the night sky without the effects of light pollution. The universe is our view into our past and our vision into the future…I want to help preserve its wonder.”

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Malheur Refuge, situated in the high-desert expanse of Harney Basin in southeast Oregon, is best known for its plenitude of migratory birds and other wildlife during spring and fall. Visitors in all seasons also come for the austere scenery, the freeing sense of space and solitude, the tangible connection to eras long past. But there is an entirely different side to this region that’s only visible after dark, preferably on a cloudless night under a waning moon. That’s when the skies above this wide-open landscape come alive with the billion-year-old shine of myriad stars and galaxies.

Night skies in and around Harney Basin are among the most stellar in the country. Under the right viewing conditions, this desert sleeps beneath a blanket of stars so thick and profuse as to beggar belief. The reasons behind this exceptional starshine are twofold. First, the predominately dry air of this high-elevation desert tends to exhibit less atmospheric distortion at night, allowing for better visibility (particularly in colder months). Second—and more importantly—there is a distinct lack of light pollution here, outside of Harney County’s few, far-flung population centers.

Harney County, at 10,228 square miles, is Oregon’s largest county. It’s considerably larger than Connecticut, Delaware and Rhode Island combined. By population size, however, it ranks at fifth-lowest in the state, with around 7,500 residents. More than 60 percent of these live in the adjacent towns of Burns and Hines, meaning that much of the county is unincorporated, undeveloped, un-electrified shrub-steppe and juniper-ponderosa forest—ideal environs for superb stargazing.

The uncommonly dark skies are so spectacular here that the Harney County Chamber of Commerce has identified stargazing as one of the county’s “7 Natural Wonders”, alongside Malheur Refuge, Malheur National Forest, Steens Mountain, Diamond Craters, the Alvord Desert, and the region’s many geothermal springs.

The best way to enjoy this age-old spectacle is by camping—ideally as far from city lights as possible. While Malheur Refuge does not offer camping or lodging options to the public, there are several locations near the Refuge and in the general area that do. These include The Narrows RV Park, Malheur Field Station, Crystal Crane Hot Springs, Diamond Hotel, Frenchglen Hotel, Page Springs Campground and Alvord Desert Hot Springs, among others.

County-wide Arts Education Program Highlights Birds, Feathers

This February and March, students across Harney County became naturalists for a day, studying and painting feathers in an artist residency program developed by Malheur National Wildlife Refuge and Bend Art Center and supported by FOMR. The students’ feather studies were featured at the annual Harney County Migratory Bird Festival, along with students’ artwork from Hines Middle School, Burns High School, Crane Union High School, homeschoolers, and other youth groups.

Visiting artist Michelle Solley and Wildlife Refuge Specialist Carey Goss spent eight days traveling to schools in Burns, Diamond, Frenchglen, Crane, Drewsey, Riley, Double O, and Fields. This year’s program combined history, art and science and served almost 600 students in grades K-8.

Solley introduced each class to the famed naturalist John James Audubon and shared his methods for illustrating birds in their natural habitats. Then it was the students’ turn to study and paint migratory bird species they might spy in Harney County.

Kids sorted through 200 laminated feathers from 30 different species and picked their favorites. Using careful observation, kids compared and contrasted different types of feathers and learned to identify whether they had selected a down, wing, tail or contour feather. Goss explained how different feather structures help birds fly, stay warm, attract mates, or provide camouflage.

Solley walked students through a variety of art techniques to capture the texture, shape and pattern of their chosen feather. After some practice and experimentation, kids created detailed studies of their bird feathers with pencil and watercolor. Goss chatted with students and offered interesting details on the species they were painting.

“We were thrilled to bring this kind of program to students in Harney County,” said Dawn Boone, Education Manager for Bend Art Center. “Art is a powerful way to explore the world around us. In making these feather studies, students cemented their newfound knowledge of migratory birds and came away with a greater appreciation for nature.”

During the Harney County Migratory Bird Festival, staff auctioned off canvas prints of students’ artwork April 6-7 at Burns High School and continued the auction at the festival’s Saturday evening banquet. Auction proceeds will fund next year’s arts education program for area youth. The original students’ artwork was displayed at Burns High School and local businesses during the festival.

Dozens of the students’ feather studies are also featured in specially-designed nature posters and cards that were available for purchase at the festival. FOMR will continue selling these at the Crane’s Nest Nature Store at Refuge Headquarters, with all proceeds supporting next year’s youth-art program.

Steens: The “Nothing-Much-Looking Mountain”

Winter thus far in the Harney Basin has been exceedingly mild. Where last year there were snowdrifts several feet deep even on the basin floors, this year it’s mostly bare ground everywhere one looks. As I write this, temperatures have reached nearly 60 degrees in Burns, Belding’s ground squirrels are waking from their winter torpor, migratory tundra swans and snow geese are gathering in the basin’s ice-free waterways, and robins and Townsend’s solitaires are practicing their songs from the treetops.

With scant accumulation of snow in the basin, our thoughts go to the fault-block massif to the southeast, Steens Mountain. The slopes of Steens capture much-needed precipitation in winter, which finds its way down to the Refuge via the Blitzen River and its tributaries as spring and summer runoff.

The gradual western slope of Steens Mountain boasts an impressive 75-square-kilometer contiguous area above 8,000 feet in elevation–unique among ranges in southeast Oregon. This enormous sheet collects precipitation flowing eastward from the Pacific, up to 28 inches per year at the highest elevations. Further enhancing this effect is the fact that the northwest Great Basin experiences more winter precipitation and lower average temperatures than the rest of the Great Basin. Thus Steens acts as an enormous winter reservoir for the surrounding lowlands: Snowpack on Steens translates to life-giving water on the Refuge, even through the hottest months of summer.

This high-elevation catchment makes possible the shallow expanses of Malheur, Mud and Harney lakes; the lush meadows of the Blitzen River Valley; the aspen-choked gorges incising the mountain itself. Water from Steens courses through perennial streams that host Great Basin redband trout and American dippers, the only aquatic songbird in North America.

Steens Mountain’s influence goes far beyond ecological benefits. The mountain looms large in the minds of those that cherish this area; it is a lodestone that draws the gaze and attention of visitors and lifelong residents alike. The late writer Ursula K. Le Guin was a Steens devotee, and she immortalized the mountain and its environs in Out Here, a collection of poetry, photographs and sketches she released with photographer Roger Dorband. In her poem “Wright’s Point”, Le Guin describes the understated prominence of this “nothing-much-looking mountain”:

Steens, that drops eight thousand feet
on the far side, faultblock
subtle and enormous geology

structure of my deep joy

Shorebird Migration

As summer draws to a close, the relentless heat of Oregon’s high desert slowly abates—a difference most keenly felt in the increasingly chilly mornings and evenings. It’s this gradual drop in temperature, along with the shortened photoperiod (length of day), that clues organisms in to winter’s coming. It’s time to migrate, hibernate, drop excess foliage, or otherwise hunker down to endure the chill.

Birds, like many aspects of the landscape, change in lockstep with the seasons. Some of the species found at Malheur Refuge are year-round residents, but the majority pass through on their way to other areas, using the refuge as a stopover site. This is especially true of Malheur’s shorebirds.

Malheur Refuge is an oasis in the high desert of southeast Oregon, attracting up to 25 million migratory birds each year. Tens of thousands of these migrants are shorebirds. Twenty-seven shorebird species use the Refuge at various points throughout the year, including Western sandpipers, long-billed dowitchers, Wilson’s pharalopes, Wilson’s snipe and American avocets.

The fall migration of shorebirds is typically well underway by September—some species may have started as early as June. As the naturalist Kenn Kaufman has noted, “Most of our migratory shorebirds nest in the Arctic, where the breeding season is quite short, which helps to explain their early southward movement. Some may head south in June if their first attempt at nesting fails, because there may not be time, in the brief Arctic summer, for a second attempt. In a number of species, one member of the pair will leave before the young are full-grown (or even before the eggs hatch), leaving the other parent to finish raising them…[In many cases], juveniles of most shorebird species migrate later than adults.”

Here’s a selection of migratory shorebird species found at Malheur:

Wilson’s phalaropes are dainty, eccentric shorebirds that congregate on Malheur’s shallow lakes and ponds by the thousands during migration. Unlike other phalarope species—which nest in the Arctic and spend much of their time wintering on the open ocean—Wilson’s phalaropes breed in North America’s interior and winter in South America. This species regularly nests on the Refuge. Phalaropes typically feed while afloat, frenetically kicking their legs to bring particles to the surface—a technique that incidentally causes the bird to spin like a top. All phalaropes are sexually dimorphic but in an unexpected way: females are larger and more brightly plumaged than males; females compete heatedly for mates; and males do all the nest-building and brooding.

North America’s largest shorebird, the Long-billed curlew breeds in arid grasslands of the West and winters along the southwestern coasts into Mexico. Curlews are commonly seen far from shorelines, stalking prairies and other open areas in search of invertebrates.

It’s no wonder where the first part of this shorebird’s name comes from: The curlew’s thin, decurved bill can be more than eight inches long—about a third of the body length of an adult, and one of the longest bills of any shorebird. It uses this ungainly implement to pluck prey items from its path or extract them from burrows. The second part of the name—curlew—is a rendering of the bird’s repetitive call: “Cur-LEE! Cur-LEE!”

Long-billed Curlews were once more widespread across the Great Plains and Great Basin regions of North America, but much of their prime breeding habitat has been lost to agricultural development. It’s estimated that just one percent of America’s native prairies remains—a mosaic of short- and tall-grass habitats that support a wide variety of bird, mammal, invertebrate and plant species.

Western Sandpipers breed in northwest Alaska and Eastern Siberia, spending winters along both coasts of the Americas. Their twice-yearly migrations tend to occur in stages, rather than the marathon non-stop flights undertaken by some species. But no matter how many pit-stops are taken along the way, it is a considerable journey by any measure, particularly for a one-ounce shorebird.

During spring and fall migration, Western sandpipers are usually the most numerous shorebird found at Malheur Refuge. Thousands of these pint-sized sandpipers can be seen carpeting the exposed mudflats along the Refuge’s lakes and ponds, fueling up for the journey ahead.

The American avocet is a big, gracile, leggy shorebird with a distinctly upturned bill, commonly breeding throughout the continent’s interior and spending winters in Baja, Central America and along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts.

When engaged in its most characteristic feeding behavior, the avocet wades purposefully near the shore, its sickle-shaped bill held inches below the water’s surface in a rhythmic coursing. Sweeping side-to-side through the murk as a reaper might wield its scythe, the avocet apprehends its invertebrate prey more often by touch, not sight. When the avocet happens upon a lively morsel, up snaps the bill and the prey is lifted from the water and quickly swallowed.

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Due to a range of factors, from habitat loss or degradation at wintering and breeding grounds, to delayed prey abundance as a result of climate change, shorebird populations across the continent have declined by an average of 70% since 1973. Species that breed in the Arctic are among the hardest hit.

That’s one of the reasons why Refuges like Malheur are so important—they provide reliable resting, breeding and nesting habitat for hundreds of migratory bird species and other wildlife. With more than 95 percent of wetland habitat along the Pacific Flyway now lost to development, the Refuge offers a crucial stopover site for shorebirds on their globe-spanning peregrinations.

Friends of Malheur Wildlife Refuge - Northern Harrier

Meet Malheur’s “Marsh Hawks”

The marshes, prairies, agricultural fields and other grassy clearings at Malheur Refuge are home to a low-flying raptor with eyes and ears to the ground, hugging the contours of the land, scanning for sight and sound of prey. No other hawk hunts quite like the harrier, gliding so close to the earth on dihedral wings, coursing the terrain with downturned beak like a hound on the scent.

White-rumped, lanky of wing and tail, Northern harriers are common and widespread throughout North America and Eurasia. They are our sole representative of the genus Circus; some 15 other harrier species occur around the world. While the word “circus” might evoke an air of pageantry about these hawks, the genus name refers not to the Ringling Bros. connotation but the original Greek root: kirkos, meaning ring or circle—in this case, circling flight. In courtship males and females soar up in looping pursuit, sometimes exchanging prey items midair to establish pair-bonds. (Then again, this exchange does remind one of a trapeze act. The etymology comes full circle.)

Northern harriers are unique among North American hawks in their reliance on both sight and sound while hunting. This two-pronged approach shapes the harrier’s visage: its large eyes are framed within an owlish facial disk, which is thought to better direct sound toward the ears. As the harrier weaves low across its grassland habitat, face pointed groundward like an audiovisual receiving dish, any rustlings of mice, birds, or other secretive prey betray not just movement but faint auditory clues to the hunter. Harriers feed on small mammals, birds, reptiles and frogs, all captured and consumed on the ground.

Few raptors exhibit sexual dimorphism to the degree of the Northern harrier. Males are smaller and a ghostly silver overall, with black wingtips; females are mostly dark brown, up to 50 percent larger, with black belly streaks and barred wings and tail. Frequently polygynous, males will take up to five female partners each season and provide almost all food for their mates and offspring. Harriers nest on the ground across the northern half of our continent, with each female bearing a single clutch of three to four dull white eggs.

Across the entire Refuge, look for these so-called “marsh hawks” strafing open areas in any season, their owlish faces scanning the ground below for signs of prey.